Reports & analysis
Planning for REDD readiness -- the Tanzania case
An illustration of concrete steps and activities initiated or planned under the Programme as they relate to REDD readiness components
In the August issue of the UN-REDD Programme newsletter we described how the UN-REDD Programme and the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility have developed harmonized thinking on what constitutes REDD readiness, facilitating the activities and coordination for countries supported by both readiness platforms. While Tanzania launched its national UN-REDD Programme on 6 November 2009 , this article illustrates the concrete steps and activities initiated or planned under the Programme as they relate to REDD readiness components. These activities include:
Coordinating REDD activities: a REDD reporting structure is in place, with a Task Force leading the process of developing a National REDD Strategy and Framework and coordinating activities related to REDD in Tanzania, including those of the UN-REDD Programme, the Norwegian Government and the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility. On this Task Force are eight members from the Vice President Office (Environment Division) and Forestry & Beekeeping Division (FBD), and from the academic, non-governmental and private sectors. The Secretariat is hosted by the Institute of Resource Assessment of the University of Dar es Salaam.
Engaging stakeholders: Stakeholder engagement has begun with developing and implementing an awareness programme around the issues raised by REDD, including the potential for REDD and how it may reduce carbon emissions. To build broad consensus with forest communities regarding the REDD framework, national and regional workshops are planned: ward and village representatives from selected districts will provide stakeholders information on the potential for REDD, hear their concerns and build their understanding of the process. A pilot rural appraisal to establish community opinions on the potential for REDD is also in preparation. The Tanzania UN-REDD Programme will also establish linkages and partnerships with the 14 existing REDD-related initiatives funded by national and/or international partners in Tanzania. At the regional level, stakeholders from neighbouring countries have recently shared and learned from the Tanzania REDD process during a Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) conference hosted in Dar es Salaam mid-November 2009.
Designing a REDD strategy and implementation framework: The strategy under the UN-REDD Tanzania Programme is embedded into the Tanzanian National Forest Programme, a framework with specific aims for elaborating the role of forests in national development. Building on its leadership in community forestry in Africa, Tanzania’s roll-out mechanism for REDD will be participatory forest management, both community-based forest management and joint forest management. With support from the World Bank and the Danish Government, a report commissioned by the FBD reviewed the past 15 years of experience with participatory forest management in Tanzania, and recommended specific actions towards the legal basis for sharing costs and benefits, approaches to service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and safeguards to avoid leakage.
The Tanzania UN-REDD programme work plan includes opportunity costs analyses of forest goods and services in select forest landscapes and barriers to triggering sustainable forest management from unsustainable forest resource use; mapping the distribution of costs and benefits (social, private and budget); performing economic analyses of nature-based adaptation options in forest landscapes to reduce vulnerability to climate change; and developing a REDD cost curve for Tanzania, plotting abatement costs against abatement potential for different land uses (protected areas, production forests, village lands, etc.), including deforestation drivers. Capacity building of stakeholders to understand and participate in these cost analysis is a cross cutting component of this work plan.
Elaborating an equitable benefit distribution systems: Under the National REDD Framework, REDD payments can take the form of direct payments, social or infrastructure services, direct employment, community development grants or microcredit loans. In order to be optimal, solutions will be location-specific. The benefit mechanism in Tanzania will likely combine REDD payments with payments for non-carbon ecosystem services, such as payment for water and biodiversity services. These will be tested under the Tanzania UN-REDD programme in the two pilot landscapes of Uluguru and East Usambara.
Developing a reference scenario: As the baseline for forest area and deforestation is only partial in Tanzania, efforts will be necessary to provide the statistics relevant to establishing a reference scenario that builds on historical trends and takes into account national development projections. Work to develop the reference emission levels will involve a combination of remote sensing, verification on the ground and local level resource assessments. This work will be informed by the numerous initiatives with high relevance to forest carbon undertaken by national and international partners on community carbon monitoring, carbon storage, forest disturbance and impact on carbon.
Establishing a monitoring system: Capacity building on carbon measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), which will be implemented by the FBD and the Vice President’s Office, will start with training on remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems, the InterGovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Good Practice Guidance, and will link to the Tanzanian National Inventory work launched in May 2009. A system for REDD information synthesis and sharing will be established at the FBD and linked to the National Forestry Database (NAFOBEDA). This will include a mechanism for sharing data linked to the Forestry Database. Training, starting with the establishment of MRV systems for REDD will be provided to forest staff. Targeted field work will calculate the degradation of forest habitats in specific areas across Tanzania.
Finally, Tanzania has started creating simple maps of carbon distribution linked to biodiversity and livelihoods, which can be used for advocacy purposes. In November 2009, the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, based in Cambridge, provided practical training to members of the FBD in geographic information systems whilst undertaking novel analysis of the distribution of carbon and co-benefits in Tanzania. This workshop produced a new carbon map for Tanzania that includes estimates of carbon in biomass and soils to one meter depth, as well as analyses of the distribution of carbon in relation to human population, protected areas, key biodiversity areas and fire. They illustrate the extent to which areas that are high in carbon are also high in other benefits such as biodiversity, and conversely, which forests are low in carbon but nevertheless offer ecosystem benefits. As mentioned above, this effort will contribute to developing mechanisms that bundle payments for non-carbon services to REDD as to deliver a higher premium on reduced emissions.
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|Carbon pools in Tanzania |
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